违规丑闻后 柴油车爱好者难对大众说再见

亚博全站APP登录官网,亚博全站官网登录平台,亚博全站最新版app下载,亚博全站登录手机网页版_LONDON — A loyal Volkswagen owner for years, Jane Kelley was “shocked,” she says, by recent revelations that the German company had cheated on emissions tests in the United States.伦敦——作为大众(Volkswagen)多年的心目中车主,珍·凯利(Jane Kelley)说道,最近获知这家德国公司被曝曾在美国的废气检测中作弊,令其她深感“愤慨”。Snug in Ms. Kelley’s garage in North London recently was a white 2013 Passat powered by a 2-liter diesel engine. The company says that as many as 11 million of its cars — Volkswagens, Audis, Skodas and SEATs with diesel engines — were equipped with software designed to fool emissions testers.在凯利坐落于伦敦北部的家中,车库里最近停放在的是一辆备有2升至柴油发动机的2013年款帕萨特。大众回应,该公司有多达1100万辆车——还包括备有柴油发动机的大众、奥迪(Audi)、斯柯达(Skoda)和西雅特(SEAT)品牌车型——装载有可以误导废气检测员的软件。


But as disturbed as she was to learn that Volkswagen had cheated, Ms. Kelley does not necessarily want anything done about it. “Are they going to take my car away and fiddle with the engine?” she said with a worried tone, as she served tea in her sunlit dining room.尽管在获知大众曾多次作弊之后深感忧虑,但凯利却未必期望有人为此做到些什么。“他们不会把我的车拦下,摆弄它的引擎吗?”她一旁忧虑地说道着,一旁在自己阳光普照的餐厅给来客末端上茶水。

As with at least some European diesel drivers, Ms. Kelley is in no hurry to abandon the car just because it may spew more noxious fumes than she originally thought. “I do feel that it is a very safe car,” she said. She also admires the acceleration of the turbocharged diesel, which she credits with helping her recently escape a potential hazard. “There was a guy weaving, maybe drunk, so I just shot by,” she recalled.和最少一部分欧洲柴油车车主一样,凯利并想意味着因为它废气的有毒气体有可能比自己原本想象的多,就缓着舍弃它。“我知道感觉它是一辆十分安全性的车,”她说道。

她也很中意这辆车的涡轮涡轮柴油发动机所不具备的加快能力,还把它不属于自己最近能脱逃一次潜在危险性的原因。“当时有辆车左摇右摆的,大约司机是喝酒了,所以我就飞速进了过去,”她回想道。Ms. Kelley is one of millions of fans of diesel cars across Europe, where fuel prices and taxes make the cost of filling an automobile’s tank much higher than in the United States. Drawn by diesels’ superior fuel economy over gasoline engines and the lower price of diesel fuel, European consumers have long leaned toward diesel cars — a collective habit that might be difficult to break, despite the new scrutiny the Volkswagen scandal has given to diesel’s dark side.在整个欧洲,像凯利这样的柴油车爱好者有数百万,那里燃油价格和税费低,使得汽油一箱油的费用比在美国高达很多。

而柴油机节油性能比汽油发动机强劲,而且柴油价格比汽油较低,所以欧洲消费者长期以来仍然偏向于出售柴油车——这一联合习惯有可能不更容易超越,虽然大众丑闻让人们开始新的检视柴油机很差的一面。While diesels have struggled in the United States to overcome a reputation as smoke-belching clunkers — they represent about 3 percent of the American car market — they have rolled to dominance across the Atlantic. Diesels accounted for more than half the new cars sold in Western Europe last year, compared with 14 percent in 1990.柴油发动机在美国仍然无法挣脱“喷烟老机器”的名声——柴油车在美国汽车市场的份额只有约3%,但在大西洋的对岸却占有主导地位。

去年西欧销售的新车有一多半都是柴油车,而这一比例在1990年时还只有14%。Europeans’ embrace of diesels has encouraged manufacturers to improve the engines’ performance, and it has motivated governments, especially those of Germany and France, to support their auto industries’ diesel efforts. Although environmentalists have been sounding alarms for years, the forces propelling diesel were so strong that it might explain why drivers, carmakers and regulators have been willing at times to overlook diesels’ tendency to be bigger polluters than gasoline cars.欧洲人对柴油车的偏爱促成汽车厂商进一步提高柴高发动机的性能,也性刺激政府,特别是在是德国和法国政府,反对本国汽车业推展柴油车。

尽管环保人士多年来仍然在敲警钟,但推展用于柴油机的力量过于过强劲,它也许可以说明为什么柴油车往往比汽油车的污染大这一点,经常不会被驾车人士、汽车厂商和监管机构漠视。“Ban diesels? You can’t be serious,” Ségolène Royal, the French environment and energy minister, said recently, responding to a suggestion by a member of the Green Party. “We can’t treat problems of this gravity with ideological slogans at the expense of French interests,” Ms. Royal said, noting that more than half the cars on French roads were diesels.“停止使用柴油机?较少打趣了,”法国环境和能源部长塞戈莱纳·罗亚尔(Ségolène Royal)最近对此一位绿党(Green Party)成员的一项建议时说。“我们无法以壮烈牺牲法国利益为代价,用意识形态口号解决问题如此根本性的问题,”罗亚尔说道,她还认为,行经在法国街道上的车辆有多达一半都是柴油车。


In fact, the percentage in France is around 64 percent, even higher than in Germany, with French-made Renault, Peugeot and Citro渀 diesels joining Volkswagens on the road. There has been no indication that the French automakers cheated on emissions tests.事实上,柴油车在法国车辆中的比例约为64%,甚至比德国还低。除了大众车以外,法国的道路上行经的还有本国生产的雷诺(Renault)、标致(Peugeot)和雪铁龙(Citro渀)柴油车。没信息表明,这些法国汽车厂商曾在废气检测中作弊。

So far, Volkswagen has not said how it plans to deal with the deceptive software problem, although the German government has set an Oct. 7 deadline for the company to propose a solution. Unlike in the United States, where lawyers are already recruiting car owners in hopes of filing class-action lawsuits, there is no similar tradition in Europe that would encourage consumers to collectively demand financial redress.目前,大众还没对外宣告它计划如何解决问题这一欺诈软件问题,尽管德国政府早已得出了最后期限,拒绝它最晚在10月7日拿走解决方案。美国早已有律师在征求车主,以期对大众驳回集体诉讼,而欧洲与美国有所不同,这里没这类希望消费者集体谋求经济赔偿金的传统。Volkswagen said on Tuesday that it would prepare a plan by early October to improve the emissions of affected vehicles. Owners will be notified in the weeks and months after the plan has been approved by authorities, the company said.周二,大众回应,它将在十月初打算一项计划,借以提高涉案车辆的废气问题。

该公司还回应,它不会在这项计划获得当局批准后的几周和几月内,向车主们发出通知。“If there is a recall, I would be happy if my car is not included in it,” said Tony Novak, a retired editor for the BBC who lives in Reading, England. In Britain, just over half of new cars sold are diesels.“如果他们要解任车辆,我期望自己的车不在此列,”现在居住于在苏格兰雷丁市的BBC卸任编辑托尼·诺瓦克(Tony Novak)说道。

在英国,新的销售车辆中柴油车的比例刚过半。“Diesels used to be terrible — they used to be dirty and slow,” he said. “Now they are brilliant.” Mr. Novak had owned diesel cars previously, but when he bought his 2014 Volkswagen Golf diesel, “I was really surprised by how good it was — you really notice the difference in acceleration.”“柴油车过去很差劲——又干净又快,”他说道。“现在棒极了。

”诺瓦克以前有好几辆柴油车,但在2014年买了2014年款大众高尔夫柴油车之后,“我尤其吃惊于它的良好——加快的时候知道能感觉到区别。”That Volkswagen might have achieved that performance by cheating — it is still not clear whether the company needed the deceptive software to pass Europe’s emissions tests, which are much less strict than the United States’ — is not what matters most to Mr. Novak. “I worry that if they tweak the computer, the performance will deteriorate,” he said.但大众有可能是通过欺诈而构建较高加快性能这一点,并不是诺瓦克最介意的。目前还不确切,大众否必须在车上加装欺诈软件以通过欧洲的废气检测,后者的标准比美国严格得多。


“我担忧他们在计算机上展开调整之后,车辆的性能不会上升,”他说道。About five million of the affected cars are Golfs, Passats and other Volkswagen-brand cars. An additional two million are Audi brand cars, and the rest or Skoda and SEAT brand cars, or light commercial vehicles.有约500万涉案车辆是高尔夫、帕萨特和其他大众品牌车型。

另有200万辆是奥迪品牌车型,只剩的是斯柯达和西雅特,或轻型商务车。Matthias Müller, a company insider who was appointed chief executive of Volkswagen last week, told top managers late Monday that the deceptive software was activated in only a portion of the 11 million vehicles that have the so-called EA 189 diesel motors. But Volkswagen did not specify how many cars were designed to cheat on emissions tests.上周,大众内部人士马蒂亚斯·穆勒(Matthias Müller)被任命为首席执行官,他在周一晚间告诉他公司高层管理人员,在配有所谓EA 189柴油发动机的1100万辆车中,只有一部分车上加装的欺诈软件被转录。但大众没明确指出,它对多少辆车展开了此类设计,可以在废气检测中作弊。

Some industry experts say that the Volkswagen scandal could prove a turning point in the diesel love affair, if the new scrutiny of European emissions standards and testing makes it easier for the environmentalists to be heard.一些行业专家回应,如果对欧洲废气标准和检测的新一轮检视让人们更容易征询环保人士的敦促,大众丑闻就有可能会沦为柴油机冷的一个转折点。The premise of the “clean diesel” notion that Volkswagen promoted was partly based on the fact that on a per-mile basis, diesel engines emit less carbon dioxide — a big contributor to climate change — than gasoline engines. But diesel exhausts, unless cleaned in ways that Volkswagen’s software was designed to sidestep, produce larger quantities of other harmful gases — nitrogen oxides — along with fine particles that contribute to stubbornly persistent air quality problems in European cities.大众宣传“洗手柴油”概念,有一部分是基于这样一个事实,即车辆每行经一英里,柴油发动机废气的二氧化碳比汽油发动机较少,而二氧化碳是气候变化的众多因素。

但除非像大众那样以尤其设计的软件展开欺诈表明出有经过“净化”的结果,否则柴油车废气的尾气中不会包括更加多氮氧化物等其他危害气体,还有更加多微小颗粒物质,后者是一些欧洲城市无法避免的空气质量问题的成因之一。“There is a recognition that, fundamentally, it is going to be difficult to control all of the problems with diesel — smoke production is not going to go away,” said Peter Wells, co-director of the center for automotive industry research at Cardiff Business School. “In the very long term, diesel has had its day.”“人们有一种共识,即很难彻底掌控柴油机不存在的所有问题——烟气废气会消失,”卡迪夫大学商学院(Cardiff Business School)汽车工业研究中心联席主任彼得·韦尔斯(Peter Wells)说道。“从较为将来来看,柴油机的好日子早已过去。”According to the European Environment Agency, which monitors air quality, 20 to 30 percent of urban residents in Europe are exposed to particle levels — mainly from diesel exhaust fumes — above those considered safe by the European Union, while about 10 percent are exposed to unsafe levels of nitrogen oxides.展开空气质量监测的欧洲环境署(European Environment Agency)的数据表明,有20%至30%的欧洲城市居民被曝露在低于欧盟安全性标准的颗粒物质污染中——主要源于柴油机废气的废气,而被曝露于超过不安全性标准的氮氧化物中的人群比例大约为10%。

London and Paris have among the highest pollution levels in terms of nitrogen oxides. In March of this year and last, the smog in Paris reached such levels that the authorities were forced to temporarily limit the number of cars on the road each day.伦敦和巴黎是氮氧化物污染最相当严重的地区之一。去年和今年的3月,巴黎的烟雾相当严重到当局不得不继续对每日上路的车辆数量展开了容许。Anne Hidalgo, the mayor of Paris, which is playing host to the United Nations climate conference in November, is among those who have suggested an eventual ban on diesels in the city.巴黎是将要于11月份举办的联合国气候会议的主办地,该市市长安妮·伊达尔戈(Anne Hidalgo)是建议巴黎最后停止使用柴油机的人士之一。The mayor of London, Boris Johnson, plans to establish an ultralow emissions zone in London by 2020 where older diesels will be penalized. A recent report by the environmental committee of the London Assembly, the city’s legislature, said the mayor should consider banning all diesels from the zone.伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)计划在2020年完结之前在伦敦创建一个超低废气区,在那里驾驶员老一代柴油机车辆上路将被不予惩处。

该市立法机构伦敦议会(London Assembly)分设的环境委员会公布的近期报告写到,市长应当考虑到在该区域封路所有柴油车。But environmental efforts must contend with deeply rooted diesel economics. Automotive fuel in Europe costs several times as much as in the United States, mainly because of higher taxes. The average price of gasoline in London in August, for example, was 521 pence, or about $7.92, per gallon. In most of Continental Europe, diesel sells for about 15 percent less than gasoline.但环境保护方面的希望必需和根深蒂固的柴油经济互为抗争。在欧洲,汽车燃油费用比美国低好几倍,主要是因为税费更高。


Part of that difference is because the taxes that help keep fuel prices high are typically lower on diesel fuel.之所以有这种差异,部分原因在于造成欧洲燃油价格低的税费,在柴油类别中一般来说比较更加较低。In Germany, the lower taxes on diesel fuel amount to an annual subsidy of 7 billion euros, or about $7.8 billion, for diesel owners, said Daniel Moser, a transportation analyst for the environmental group Greenpeace.环境保护的组织绿色和平(Greenpeace)的交通运输分析师丹尼尔·莫泽(Daniel Moser)回应,在德国,柴油税费更加较低,其差额总计相等于给所有柴油车车主获取了每年高达70亿欧元的补贴。

“These policies are not in accordance with what we would have to do to protect the environment and people’s health,” he said.“这些政策与我们为保护环境和人们的身体健康所该做到的事,是不完全一致的,”他说道。And then there are vehicle tax breaks that various governments offer to diesel owners, because of the cars’ lower emissions of carbon dioxide.而且,欧洲各国政府还制订了给柴油车车主免除车辆税的政策,因为这些车辆废气的二氧化碳更加较少。Also, new diesels are often only slightly more expensive than their gasoline counterparts. In Britain, a Volkswagen Golf Match with a 1.4-liter, turbocharged gasoline engine sells for 20,955, or about $31,800, while a similar model with a 1.6-liter diesel engine sells for 21,960, according to Carbuyer, a British website.而且,新的柴油车的价格往往只比同等汽油发动机车辆稍微低一些。

英国汽车网车站Carbuyer的数据表明,在英国,一辆配有1.4升至涡轮涡轮汽油发动机的大众高尔夫Match售价为20955英镑(约合20.2万元人民币),而类似于车型的1.6升至柴油发动机车售价为21960英镑(约合21.2万人民币)。With all those factors taken into account, owning and operating a diesel car in Europe is the more affordable way to go.考虑到所有这些因素,在欧洲出售和驾驶员一辆柴油车要更加昂贵。In the United States, with much lower gasoline prices, “there is no point at the margin, buying a diesel,” said Garel Rhys, a professor emeritus at Cardiff University. He said Europeans’ embrace of diesels made perfect sense. “Essentially, growth came because consumers are economically rational individuals,” Professor Rhys said.在美国,因为汽油价格较低得多,“没有适当出售柴油车,”卡迪夫大学荣休教授特勒尔·里斯(Garel Rhys)说道。

他还回应,欧洲人更加拒绝接受柴油车是几乎说道得通的。“从本质上谈,出售柴油车的人数不会减少,是因为消费者在经济考量上都是较为理性的个体,”里斯说道。But a continued yen for diesels may not necessarily translate into an abiding love of Volkswagen, for some Europeans at least.但是人们对柴油机有持续出售性欲,不一定就意味著他们不会总有一天青睐大众,最少对一些欧洲人来说是这样。

Jon Devereux, who drives a diesel-engine Volkswagen Touareg, manages a hotel in Milford on Sea, in southern England. Each winter, he takes the four-wheel-drive vehicle to his winter home in the French Alps. The Touareg, he said, has “been brilliant for 10 years.”在南英格兰米尔福德港(Milford)经营酒店的乔恩·德弗罗(Jon Devereux)享有一辆配有柴油发动机的大众途锐(Touareg)。每年冬天,他都会驾驶员这辆四驱车去他在法国阿尔卑斯山的冬季别墅。他说道,这辆途锐“在过去十年展现出得仍然很不俗。


”But when it comes time to replace it, his next diesel will not be a Volkswagen. The emissions scandal has soured Mr. Devereux on the carmaker. “Would you buy a VW car or any car in the VW group?’’ he asked.但说到更换这辆车,他买的下一辆柴油车会是大众。这起废气丑闻让德弗罗对这家汽车厂商深感沮丧。“你不会卖一辆大众车或大众集团旗下的任何品牌吗?”他回答。。



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